Leukemia is one of the oncological diseases in which the bone marrow
function of a patient is disrupted. Leukemia is often referred to as
“blood cancer”, which is not very correct, or “leukemia”, which is
also an old-fashioned name. In this article you will learn about
leukemia, the types of leukemia and their treatment methods. ᲚᲔᲘᲙᲔᲛᲘᲐ
ᲐᲠᲘᲡ ᲚᲔᲘᲙᲔᲛᲘᲐ? Leukemia is one of the most common types of malignant
diseases. It is a systemic disease of the hematopoietic organs in
which immature blood cells accumulate in the bone marrow. The
accumulation of abnormal blood cells in the bone marrow prevents it
from producing normal, healthy cells. The patient develops symptoms of
the disease – suffers from a lack of healthy blood cells. There are
three types of blood cells: Leukocytes – colorless cells that are
responsible for the body’s immune response; Erythrocytes – red blood
cells that supply oxygen to the body; Platelets – flat cells that are
involved in blood clotting. All three of these types of cells are
present in the blood plasma. Billions of new cells are produced daily
in the bone marrow, most of which are erythrocytes. The human body
with leukemia produces abnormal leukocytes that do not have the
function of protecting the body, although they normally live longer
than leukocytes. In a healthy body, blood cells are formed constantly.
Even in the body of a leukemia patient, the blood cells are unable to
mature and grow to normal. The disease rapidly damages the body.
Abnormal cells travel from the bone marrow to the lymph nodes, blood,
nervous system, and other organs. Leukemia causes the body to
malfunction. If left untreated, the lethal outcome can be months or
even weeks. ᲚᲔᲘᲙᲔᲛᲘᲐ ᲩᲜᲓᲔᲑᲐ ᲚᲔᲘᲙᲔᲛᲘᲐ? Cases of leukemia are found in
both children and adults. The exact cause of the disease is unknown.
Some cases of the disease are inherited, while others are not. As has
been shown in other types of malignancies, the likelihood of
developing leukemia also increases with the presence of several risk
factors. Such risk factors include: Tobacco consumption. Tobacco
smoking has a negative effect even on cells that do not come into
direct contact with tobacco smoke. The harmful substances in tobacco
are spread throughout the body. They are the ones who can provoke the
onset of leukemia; Existence of other malignant diseases. Leukemia can
develop on the background of taking chemotherapeutic drugs, which
adversely affect the tumor directly, as well as the whole organism.
Patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy are at greatest
risk for the disease. Nevertheless, such cases are quite rare;
Polluted environmental factors, contact with radiation and gasoline.
Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. The risk of developing
leukemia is higher in people who have chromosomal abnormalities, such
as Down syndrome. Inheritance. Many patients diagnosed with leukemia
do not have the above symptoms. ᲠᲐ ᲡᲐᲮᲘᲡ ᲚᲔᲘᲙᲔᲛᲘᲔᲑᲘ ᲒᲕᲮᲕᲓᲔᲑᲐ?
According to the course of the disease, there are two types of
leukemia: Chronic leukemia – a disease with a slow course in which the
blood cells look like mature but are actually abnormal; Acute leukemia
– a rapidly developing disease in which cells fail to mature and begin
to divide; Chronic leukemia can not develop into an acute form, nor
can an acute form develop into a chronic one. According to the
modified cell types, leukemia is divided into lymphoblastic and
myeloid types. The lymphoblastic type develops from bone marrow
lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that are a
variety of leukocytes; In the myeloid type the disease develops from
granulocytes and monocytes in the bone marrow